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German federated state of Lower Saxony: characteristics, population, photos, major cities, climate, map and much more

On this page you will find interesting information, statistics about Lower Saxony: major cities and the capital of the federated state, population, map, climate and weather, flag, coat of arms, photos of sightseeing attractions, ZIP code, phone codes and much more.


§ Brief overview of the Lower Saxony federated state

Lower Saxony is the second largest federated state in Germany; with the coast of the North Sea in its northern part, and the highest mountains of Northern Germany, called the Harz (in German: Harz) – in the southern. Sheep, cows and horses graze in the fields of this federated state. In the southern part of the federated state, near Hamburg, there is the Altes Land area, growing more fruit trees than anywhere else in Germany, mainly apple trees, pears and cherries.

In the northeast part of the federated state, as well as on the islands, there is a region called East Frisia or Eastern Friesland, where the East Frisian people lives.

Agriculture and tourism play an important role in the economy of the federated state, especially in the Harz and on the North Sea coast. Besides, many residents of Lower Saxony are employed in the automotive and shipbuilding industries.

§ Photos of the sightseeing attractions in the Niedersachsen federated state

To enlarge and view the picture, click on it pressing the mouse button.


§ Population of the Niedersachsen federated state

The population size in Lower Saxony totals 7'945'685 people. Of these, 3'923'396 are men, which is 49.4 % and 4'022'289 are women or 50.6 % of the whole federated state population. The population density of the Lower Saxony federated state is 167 people per 1 square kilometer.

Based on the data in Table 1 (see below on the page), the Lower Saxony federated state occupies 13 % of the entire territory of Germany, which is home to 10 % of the population of the entire country, they live in 945 settlements located on the territory of the said land.

§ Climate and weather in Lower Saxony

Like in other parts of the country, Lower Saxony has a temperate climate with warm summers and relatively warm winters. According to the German Weather Service (aka the German Meteorological Service) (in German: DWD), in 2020 the average annual temperature in Lower Saxony was 10.9 degrees Celsius, while in winter the air temperature was on average 5.3 °C, and in summer 18.1 °C. The rainfall in 2020 was 689 l/m2, and the sun shone that year in Lower Saxony for 1'779 hours. Click here for more information about the Climate of Germany

§ Capital of the Lower Saxony German federated state

The capital of the Lower Saxony federated state is the City of Hanover, in German Hannover or Hannover, Landeshauptstadt, with a population of more than 536'000 people.

Show on the map

§ Statistics, essential data about the federated state

Table 1 below presents statistics as to the data for the federated state of Lower Saxony, as well as indicators for the whole of Germany for comparison. Besides, from Table 1, you will learn the percentage ratio of the indicator for the federated state to the indicator for the whole of Germany.

Table 1. Statistical data on the Niedersachsen federated state as of early 2017.

Descriptor Value as to the federated state and its percentage ratio to the indicator for the whole of Germany Value for the whole of Germany
Name in German Niedersachsen - -
Federated state type designation, in German Land - -
Abbreviation (code) of the federated state, in German NI - -
Capital of the federated state Hanover
(нем. Hannover)
- -
Territory, land area 47'710 km2 13 % 357'578 km2
The federated state population, all people altogether 7'945'685 10 % 82'521'653
The federated state population, men 3'923'396 10 % 40'697'118
The federated state population, women 4'022'289 10 % 41'824'535
Population density, people per km2 167 72 % 231
Number of administrative districts (in Ger .: Bezirk) 0 0 % 19
Number of counties (in Ger.: Kreis) 45 11 % 401
Number of cities of regional subordinance, i.e. district-free cities or urban districts (in Ger.: kreisfreie Städte) 8 7 % 107
Number of the federated state rural districts (in Ger.: Landkreis) 37 13 % 294
Number of municipalities (in Ger.: Gemeinde), i.e. localities or settlements 945 9 % 11'042
Number of cities 159 8 % 2060

§ The Lower Saxony federated state holidays schedule

Every federated state in Germany has the right to establish holidays, days off from work, which are valid on their territory. On the territory of Lower Saxony there are 11 official holidays. A detailed calendar of the Lower Saxony federated state public holidays can be found on a dedicated page of our website. The school vacations schedule of the Lower Saxony federated state is also established by a decision of the local government distinct from other German federated states.

§ Major cities in the Lower Saxony federated state

In the Niedersachsen federated state there are 945 settlements, of which 159 are cities. Table 2 below contains a list of major, large cities in the said federated state.

Table 2. Major cities in the Lower Saxony federated state in English and German.

Nr. Name of the city Name of the city in German Population size, rounded to thousand people
1 Hanover
(Capital of the federated state)
Hannover 536'000
2 Braunschweig Braunschweig 249'000
3 Oldenburg Oldenburg 168'000
4 Osnabrück Osnabrück 165'000
5 Wolfsburg Wolfsburg 124'000
6 Göttingen Göttingen 120'000
7 Salzgitter Salzgitter 105'000
8 Hildesheim Hildesheim 102'000
9 Delmenhorst Delmenhorst 78'000
10 Wilhelmshaven Wilhelmshaven 77'000
11 Lüneburg Lüneburg 76'000
12 Celle Celle 70'000
13 Garbsen Garbsen 61'000
14 Hamelin Hameln 58'000
15 Lingen Lingen (Ems) 55'000
16 Langenhagen Langenhagen 54'000
17 Nordhorn Nordhorn 54'000
18 Wolfenbüttel Wolfenbüttel 53'000
19 Goslar Goslar 52'000
20 Emden Emden 51'000

§ Flag and coat of arms of the Niedersachsen federated state

In the picture below, you can see the flag or flag / coat of arms of the federated state.

Flag and coat of arms of the Lower Saxony

§ Lower Saxony on a map of Germany

In the picture below, you can see the location of the federated state and its capital on a map of Germany. Map of all the federated states of Germany and their capitals.

Lower Saxony on a map of Germany


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